Tag: Control

Laboratory diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila 5/5 (6)

Laboratory diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila

Laboratory diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila Specimen: Respiratory secretions (sputum, bronchial aspirate or washings), as well as pleural fluid, lung biopsy or autopsy material. Microscopy Legionellae in clinical specimens stain poorly with Gram stain and the small, intracellular bacteria are rarely recognized. The organism will stain with nonspecific methods, such as Dieterle silver stain, but this […]

Laboratory diagnosis of Leprosy caused by Mycobacterium leprae 4.86/5 (7)

Laboratory diagnosis of Leprosy caused by Mycobacterium leprae

Laboratory diagnosis of Leprosy caused by Mycobacterium leprae Specimen Skin biopsies, nasal discharges, scrapings from the nasal mucosa and slit-skin smears which are prepared by making superficial incisions in the skin, scraping out some tissue fluid and cells. Skin smears The skin smears are collected from the leprous lesions, such as nodules, thick papules, and […]

Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Mycoplasma pneumoniae 4.47/5 (19)

Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Specimen Ideal specimens are throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates, lung biopsies, expectorated sputum. Washings are more reliable than sputum specimens because most infected patients have a dry, nonproductive cough and do not produce sputum. Microscopy Test is not useful because organisms do not have a cell wall and do not […]

Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Streptococcus pneumoniae 4.8/5 (10)

Laboratory diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Laboratory diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae Specimen: Sputum, blood, endotracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pleural fluid, joint fluid, abscess fluid, bones, and other biopsy material. Microscopy Gram staining of sputum shows lancet shaped Gram-positive cocci in pairs. Fresh emulsified sputum mixed with antiserum causes capsule swelling (the quellung reaction) for identification of pneumococci. In […]

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Leptospira interrogans 4.45/5 (11)

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Leptospira interrogans

Laboratory diagnosis of Leptospira interrogans Specimens Specimens consist of aseptically collected blood in a heparin tube, CSF, urine, or tissues for microscopic examination and culture. Serum is collected for agglutination tests. Microscopy As leptospires are thin, they are at the limit of the resolving power of a light microscope and thus cannot be seen by […]

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Rickettsia rickettsii 5/5 (4)

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Rickettsia rickettsii

Laboratory diagnosis of Rickettsia rickettsii Specimen: Skin biopsies, serum Direct detection method Although Rickettsiae stain poorly with Gram stain, they can be stained with Giemsa or Gimenez stains. Direct detection of R. rickettsii antigen in skin biopsy specimens of the rash from infected patients by direct fluorescent antibody test using the specific anti-rickettsial antibodies is a rapid […]

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Corynebacterium diphtheriae 4.83/5 (6)

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Laboratory diagnosis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Specimen Dacron swabs from the nose, throat, or other suspected lesions must be obtained before antimicrobial drugs are administered. Swabs should be collected from beneath any visible membrane. The swab should then be placed in semisolid transport media such as Amies. Microscopy Smears stained with alkaline methylene blue or Gram stain […]

Laboratory diagnosis of Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum 4.86/5 (14)

Laboratory diagnosis of Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum

Laboratory diagnosis of Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum Specimen Samples collected from ulcers and lesions should not be contaminated with blood, microorganisms, or tissue debris. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) samples should be collected on a sterile Dacron or cotton swab and placed in a cryotube containing nucleic acid transport medium or universal transport medium. Tissue […]

Laboratory diagnosis of Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes 4.04/5 (23)

Laboratory diagnosis of Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes

Laboratory diagnosis of Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes Specimens: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Blood Microscopy Gram-stain preparations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) typically show no organisms because the bacteria are generally present in concentrations below the limit of detection (e.g., 10ˆ4 bacteria per milliliter CSF or less). If the Gram stain shows organisms, they are intracellular and extracellular […]

Laboratory diagnosis of Bacterial vaginosis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis 4.36/5 (25)

Laboratory diagnosis of Bacterial vaginosis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis

Laboratory diagnosis of Bacterial vaginosis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis Specimen: Vaginal discharge specimen A. Direct Microscopic Examination Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a foul-smelling discharge. A diagnosis/confirmation is done microscopically by examination of gram stains to detect change in vaginal ecology. A smear of vaginal fluid or vaginal swab is gram stained which reveals […]

Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Shigella dysenteriae 4.23/5 (13)

Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Shigella dysenteriae

Laboratory Diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae Specimens: stool, mucus flecks, and rectal swabs for culture. Large numbers of fecal leukocytes and some red blood cells often are seen microscopically. Microscopic examination Microscopic examination of stool smears reveals higher number of PMN cells. They are Gram negative small rod shaped, non-motile, non-capsulated. Culture and biochemical analysis The […]

Laboratory diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogenes 4.15/5 (20)

Laboratory diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogenes

Laboratory diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogenes 1. Specimens Throat swab Pus Cerebrospinal fluid Blood Serum for antibody determinant 2. Smear Gram staining Purple color cocci in chain arrangement Not to be confused with Viridans Streptococci from throat swab sample since both have same appreance 3. Culture Culture on blood agar Addition of bacitracin in inoculum: S […]

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